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ARTICLES OF FAITH (IMAAN) IN ISLAM & COMPARISON WITH TENETS PRESCRIBED BY HINDU SCRIPTURES
Articles of faith of Islam
Almighty Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an

It is not righteousness
That ye turn your faces
Towards East or West;
But it is righteousness
To believe in Allah
And the Last Day,
And the Angels,
And the Book,
And the Messengers;
(Al Qur’an 2:177)


Sahih Muslim Vol. 1 Book of Imaan Chapter 2 Hadith 6.

It is reported in Sahih Muslim:

“... A man came to the Prophet and said ‘O Messenger of Allah, what is Imaan (faith)? He (the prophet) said: ‘That you affirm your faith in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Meeting, His Messengers and that you believe in the Resurrection i.e. Hereafter and that you believe in Qadr i.e. destiny’.

(Sahih Muslim Vol. 1, Book of Imaan, Chapter 2, Hadith 6)

Thus the six articles of faith of Islam are:
Concept of God (The first article of faith in Islam is ‘Tawheed’ i.e. belief in the one Unique Eternal Creator of all creation).
His angels
His books
His messengers
The Hereafter i.e. Life after death and
Qadr i.e. destiny

Let’s study what Hinduism says about these six articles.
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Concept of God in Hinduism

Let us examine the concept of God in these two major religions in light of their respective scriptures and study if there are similarities.

First we shall discuss the Concept of God in Hinduism.

COMMON CONCEPT OF GOD IN HINDUISM :

If you ask some lay persons who are Hindus that how many gods do they believe in, some may say three, some may say thirty-three, some may say a thousand, while some may say thirty-three crores i.e. 330 million. But if you ask this question to a learned Hindu who is well versed with the Hindu Scriptures, he will reply that the Hindus should actually believe and worship only one God.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ISLAM AND HINDUISM IS THAT OF ’S
(Everything is ‘God’s’ – Everything is ‘God’)

The major difference between the Hindu and the Muslim is that while the common Hindu believes in the philosophy of Pantheism, i.e. “everything is God, the Tree is God, the Sun is God, the Moon is God, the Snake is God, the Monkey is God, the Human Being is God”, all Muslims believe that “everything is God’s”.

The Muslims believe that everything is God’s. GOD with an apostrophe’s’. Everything belongs to the one and only unique eternal God. The tree belongs to God, the sun belongs to God, the moon belongs to God, the snake belongs to God, monkey belongs to God, the human being belongs to God.

Thus the major difference between the Hindus and the Muslims is the apostrophe ‘s’. The Hindu says, “everything is GOD”. The Muslim says, “everything is God’s”, GOD with an Apostrophe ‘s’. If we can solve the difference of the Apostrophe ‘s’, the Hindus and the Muslims will be united.

The Glorious Qur’an says

“Come to common terms as between us and you”,
Which is the first term?
“that we worship none but Allah”
So let’s come to common terms by analyzing the scriptures of the Hindus and of the Muslims.
UPANISHAD:

Upanishads are one of the sacred Scriptures of the Hindus.

Chandogya Upanishad Chapter 6 Section 2 verse 1

“Ekam Evadvitiyam”
“He is one only without a second.”

(The Principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg. 447 & 448)
(Sacred Books of the East Volume 1, the Upanishads Part I Page 93)

Shwetashvatara Upanishad Chapter 6 verse 9

“Nacasya kascij janita na cadhipah”
“Of Him there are neither parents nor Lord.”


(The Principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg. 745)
(and in Sacred books of the East volume 15, the Upanishads Part II Page 263)

Shwetashvatara Upanishad Chapter 4 verse 19

“Na tasya pratima asti”
“There is no likeness of Him”.


(The Principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg 736 & 737 )
(and in Sacred books of the East Volume 15, the Upanishads part II, Page no. 253)

Shwetashvatara Upanishad Chapter 4 verse 20

“na samdrse tisthati rupam asya, na caksusa pasyati kas canainam”.
“His form cannot be seen, no one sees Him with the eye”.


(The Principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg. 737)
(And in Sacred books of the East Volume 15, the Upanishad part II, Page no. 253)


BHAGWAD GEETA

The most popular amongst all the Hindu Scriptures is the Bhagwad Geeta.

Bhagwad Geeta mentions
“Those whose intelligence has been stolen by material desires worship demigods” that is “Those who are materialistic, they worship demigods” i.e. others as deities besides the True God.
(Bhagwad Geeta 7:20)

It is mentioned in Bhagavad Gita
“He who knows Me as the unborn, as the beginning-less, as the Supreme Lord of all the worlds...”
(Bhagwad Geeta 10:3)

YAJURVEDA

Vedas are the most sacred amongst all the Hindu Scriptures. There are principally 4 Vedas: Rig Ved, Yajur Ved, Sam Ved, and Atharva Veda.

Yajurveda Chapter 32, Verse 3

“na tasya pratima asti”
“There is no image of Him”


It further says,
“as He is unborn, He deserves our worship”.
(Yajurveda 32:3)
(The Yajurveda by Devi Chand M.A. pg. 377)

Yajurveda Chapter 40 Verse 8

“He is bodiless and pure”.
(Yajurveda 40:8)
(Yajurveda Samhita by Ralph I. H. Griffith pg. 538)

Yajurved Chapter 40 Verse 9

“Andhatma pravishanti ye assambhuti mupaste”
“They enter darkness, those who worship natural things.”

E.g. worship of natural elements air, water, fire, etc.
(Yajurveda 40:9)

It further continues and says
“They sink deeper in darkness those who worship sambhuti i.e. created things”
E.g. created things such as table, chair, idols, etc.
(Yajurveda Samhita by Ralph T. H. Griffith pg. 538)
ATHARVA VEDA

Atharva Veda book 20 hymn (chapter) 58 verse 3

It is mentioned in Atharva Veda
“Dev Maha Osi”
“God is Verily Great.”

(Atharva Veda 20:58:3)
(Atharvaveda Samhita Vol. 2, William Duright Whitney pg. 910)
RIGVEDA

The oldest and most sacred amongst all the Vedas is the Rigveda.

Rigveda Book no. 1, Hymn No. 164, verse 46

It is mentioned in Rigveda Book no. 1, hymn No. 164 verse 46
“Ekam sat vipra bahudha vadanti”
“Sages (learned Priests) call one God by many names”.

(Rigveda 1:164:46)

Truth is one, God is one, sages call it by various names.

A similar message is given in Rigveda, Book 10, hymn 114, verse 5.


Rigveda Book 2 hymn 1

Rigveda gives no less than 33 different attributes to Almighty God. Several of these attributes are mentioned in Rigveda Book 2 hymn 1

a. Brahma - Creator - Khaliq – Rigveda Book 2 Hymn 1 Verse 3
Amongst the various attributes given in Rigveda , one of the beautiful attributes for Almighty God is ‘Brahma’. ‘Brahma’ means ‘the Creator’. If you translate into Arabic it means ‘Khaliq’. Islam does not object to anyone calling Almighty God as ‘Khaliq’ or ‘Creator’ or ‘Brahma’, but if someone says that ‘Brahma’ i.e. Almighty God has got four heads and on each head is a crown and this Brahma has got four hands, Islam takes strong exception to it because such descriptions give an image to Almighty God. Such descriptions are also against what is propounded in Yajurveda Chapter 32, verse 3 which says:

“Na tasya pratima asti”
“There is no image of Him”.

(Yajurveda 32:3)

b. Vishnu – Sustainer - Rabb : Rigveda Book 2, Hymn 1, verse 3
Another beautiful attribute mentioned in the Rigveda Book 2, Hymn 1, Verse 3 is Vishnu. ‘Vishnu’ means ‘the Sustainer’. If you translate this word into Arabic it means ‘Rabb’. Islam has no objection if anyone calls Almighty God as ‘Rabb’ or ‘Sustainer’ or ‘Vishnu’, but if someone says that Vishnu is Almighty God and this Vishnu has four arms, one of the right arms holds the ‘chakra’ i.e. a discus and one of the left arms holds a ‘conch shell’ and Vishnu rides on a bird or reclines on a snake couch, then Islam takes strong exception to this, because such descriptions of Vishnu give an image to Almighty God. Such descriptions are also against what is taught in Yajurveda Chapter 40 verse 8.

Rigveda Book 8 hymn 1 verse 1

It is mentioned in Rigveda
“Ma Chidanyadvi Shansata”
“Do not worship anybody but Him, the Divine One, Praise Him alone”
(Rigveda 8:1:1)
(Rigveda Samhiti Vol. IX, pg. 1 & 2 by Swami Satyaprakash Sarasvati & Satyakam Vidhya Lankar)

Rigveda Book 5 Hymn 81 verse 1

It is mentioned in Rigveda
“Verily great is the glory of the Divine Creator”
(Rigveda 5:81:1)
(Rigveda Samhiti Vol. 6, pg 1802 & 1803 by Swami Satyaprakash Sarasvati & Satyakam Vidhya Lanka)

Rigveda Book no. VI, Hymn 45, verse 16

It is mentioned in Rigveda
“Ya Eka Ittamushtuhi”
“Praise Him who is the matchless & alone”.

(Rigveda 6:45:16)
(Hymns of Rigveda by Ralph T. H. Griffith pg. 648)

BRAHMA SUTRA OF HINDU VEDANTA

The Brahma Sutra of Hindu Vedanta is:

‘Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na naste kinchan”
“Bhagwan ek hi hai dusara nahi hai, nahi hai, nahi hai, zara bhi nahi hai”.
“There is only one God, not the second, not at all, not at all, not in the least bit”.

All the above quoted verses and passages from Hindu Scriptures clearly amplify the Oneness and Uniqueness of Almighty God, the Creator of all. Furthermore, they negate the existence of any other deity besides the One True God. These verses essentially propound monotheism.

Therefore only if one carefully studies the Hindu Scriptures, will one understand and realize the correct concept of God in Hinduism.
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Concept of God in Islam
  • Surah Ikhlas with explanation
  • Attributes of GOD
  • Name 'Allah' preferered instead of the word 'God'
  • Allah is mentioned by Name in Hindu Scriptures
  • The concept of God in Islam
  • The Qur’an too propounds monotheism. So you will find similarities between Hinduism and Islam even in the concept of God.

    SURAH IKHLAS WITH EXPLANATION

    Translation
    As per Islam, the best and the most concise definition of God is given in Surah Ikhlas of the Glorious Qur’an:

    Say He is Allah,
    The One and Only;
    Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;
    He begets not,
    Nor is He begotten;
    And there is none
    Like unto Him.

    (Al Qur’an 112:1-4)

    The word ‘assamad’ is difficult to translate. It means that absolute existence can be attributed only to Allah, all other existence being temporal or conditional. It also means Allah is not dependant on any person or thing but all persons and things are dependent on Him.

    It is the touch stone of Theology

    Surah Ikhlas i.e. Chapter 112 of the Glorious Qur’an is the touchstone of Theology. ‘Theo’ in Greek means God and ‘logy’ means study. Thus ‘Theology’ means study of God and Surah Ikhlas is the touchstone of the study of God.

    If you want to purchase or sell your gold jewellery, you would first evaluate it. Such an evaluation of gold jewellery is done by a goldsmith with the help of a touchstone. He rubs the gold jewellery on the touch stone and compares its colour with rubbing samples of gold. If it matches with 24 Karat gold he will tell that your jewellery is 24 Karat pure Gold. If it is not high quality pure Gold, he will tell you its value whether 22 Karats, 18 Karats or it may not be gold at all. It may be fake because all that glitters is not gold.

    Similarly Surah Ikhlas (Chapter 112 of the Qur’an) is the touchstone of theology, which can verify whether the deity that you worship is a true God or a false God. Thus, Surah Ikhlaas is a four-line definition of Almighty God according to the Qur’an. If any one claims to be, or is believed to be Almighty God satisfies this four-line definition, we Muslims will readily accept that deity as God. This Chapter of the Glorious Qur’an, Surah Ikhlas, is the acid test. It is the ‘Furqan’ or the criterion to judge between the one True God and false claimants to divinity. Hence, whichever deity any human on earth worships, if such a deity fulfills the criteria specified in this Chapter of the Qur’an, then this deity is worthy of worship and is the One True God.

    Is Bhagwan Rajneesh God ?

    Some people say that Bhagwan Rajneesh or Osho Rajneesh is Almighty God. Please note my words, I have stated that some people say that Bhagwan Rajneesh is Almighty God. Once during a question-answer session there was a Hindu gentleman who misunderstood my statement. He said that Hindus do not worship Rajneesh as God. I am aware that Hinduism does not consider Rajneesh to be God. Rajneesh has followers, who are converts to his philosophy / ideology, but who were originally followers of various different religions.

    Let us put this candidate Bhagwan Rajneesh to the test of Divinity as prescribed by Surah Ikhlaas, the touchstone of Divinity.

    (i) The First Criterion is ‘Qul hu Allah hu ahad’ –‘say, He is Allah one and only’. Is Rajneesh one and only? We know several such fake god-men and claimants of divinity amongst humans. Several are found in our country, India. Rajneesh is surely not one and only. Not as a human and not even as a human claimant to godhood. However, some disciples of Rajneesh may still state that Rajneesh is unique and that he is one and only.

    (ii) Let us analyse the second criterion ‘Allah hus samad’– ‘Allah the Absolute & ‘Eternal’. Is Rajneesh absolute and eternal? We know from his biography that he was suffering from diabetes, asthama, and chronic backache. He alleged that the U.S.A. government gave him slow poisoning while he was in their jail. Imagine! Almighty God being poisoned! Moreover, all are aware that Rajneesh died and was cremated / buried. So Rajneesh was neither eternal, nor absolute

    (iii) The third Criteria is ‘Lam ya lid wa lam yu lad’ – ‘He begets not, nor is begotten’. However, Rajneesh was begotten. He was born in Jabalpur in India. Like all humans, he too had a mother and a father. They later on become his disciples.

    Rajneesh was a very intelligent person. In May 1981 he went to U.S.A. He established a town in Oregon and named it ‘Rajneeshpuram’. It seems that he took America for a ride for the U.S. government arrested him and later deported him out of America in 1985. So Rajneesh returned to India and started a ‘Rajneesh Neosanyas commune in Pune in India which was later renamed the ‘Osho commune’.

    If you visit this ‘Osho commune’ in Pune you will find it written on his tombstone, “Osho - never born, never died, only visited the planet earth between 11th Dec. 1931 to 19th Jan 1990”. They conveniently forget to mention on this tombstone that Rajneesh was not given a visa for 21 different countries of the world. Imagine Almighty God visiting the earth and requiring a visa! The Arch Bishop of Greece had said that if Rajneesh was not deported they would burn his house and those of his disciples.

    (iv) The fourth test is so stringent that none besides the One True God, Allah (swt), can pass it. ‘Wa lam ya kullahu kufuwan ahad’ which means, ‘there is none like Him’. The moment you can imagine or compare the candidate or claimant to godhood to anything, this candidate is not god. Neither can you have a mental picture of God.

    We know that Rajneesh was a human being. He had one head, two hands, two feet, and a white flowing beard. The moment you can think or imagine what the claimant to godhood is, he or she is not god.

    Suppose someone says, “God is a thousand times as strong as Arnold Schwarzenegger”. Arnold Schwarzenegger is one of the strongest men on earth. He was given the title ‘Mr. Universe’ in (the year). The moment you can compare Almighty God to anything, whether it is a 1000 times stronger or a million times stronger, whether it be Darasingh or Kingkong, the moment you can compare the claimant to godhood to anything, he is not God. ‘Wa lam ya kul lahu kufwan ahad’ ‘there is none like Him.’
    ATTRIBUTES OF GOD

    To Allah belong the most beautiful names:

    The Qur’an mentions in Surah Isra Chapter 17 Verse 110:

    Say: “Call upon Allah, or
    Call upon Rahman;
    By whatever name ye call
    Upon Him, (it is well):
    For to Him belong
    The Most Beautiful Names

    (Al Qur’an 17:110)

    You can call Allah by any name but that name should be beautiful and should not conjure up a mental picture. The Qur’an gives no less than 99 different attributes to Almighty God. Some of these are Ar-Rahman, Ar-Raheem, Al-Hakeem; Most Gracious, Most Merciful and All Wise. 99 different names / attributes and the crowning one, the hundredth one is Allah. The Qur’an repeats this message that to Allah belong the most beautiful names in:

    (i) Surah Al Aaraf Chapter 7 Verse 180
    (ii) In Surah Taha Chapter 20 Verse 8
    (iii) In Surah Al Hashr Chapter 59 Verse 23 & 24
    NAME ALLAH PREFERED TO THE WORD ‘GOD’

    The Muslims prefer calling Allah (swt) with His Name Allah, instead of the English word ‘God’. The Arabic word Allah is pure and unique, unlike the English word God which can be played around with.

    If you add ‘s’ to God, it becomes ‘gods’ that is plural of God. Allah is one and singular, there is no plural of Allah. If you add ‘dess’ to God, it becomes ‘goddess’ that is a female God. There is nothing like male Allah or female Allah. Allah has no gender. If you add father to God, it becomes ‘godfather’. “He is my Godfather” means that “he is my guardian”. There is nothing like Allah Abba or Allah father in Islam. If you add mother to God it becomes ‘godmother, there is nothing like Allah Ammi or Allah Mother in Islam. If you put tin before God, it becomes tin god i.e. a fake God, there is nothing like-tin Allah or fake Allah in Islam. Allah is a unique word, which does not conjure up any mental picture nor can it be played around with. Hence, the Muslims prefer the name Allah when referring to the Almighty Creator. But sometimes while speaking to non-Muslims we may have to use the inappropriate word God for Allah.
    Allah is mentioned by Name in Hindu Scriptures

    The Word “Allah”, which refers to Almighty God in Arabic, is also mentioned in

    Rigveda Book 2 hymn 1 verse 11
    Rigveda Book 3 hymn 30 verse 10
    Rigveda Book 9 hymn 67 verse 30

    There is an Upanishad by the name ALO Upanishad.
    THE CONCEPT OF GOD IN ISLAM

    We had earlier stated that as per Islam the best and the most concise definition of God is as given in Surah Ikhlas of the Glorious Qur’an:

    Say He is Allah,
    The One and Only;
    Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;
    He begets not,
    Nor is He begotten;
    And there is none
    Like unto Him.

    (Al Qur’an 112:1-4)


    Similar Verses in Hindu Scriptues

    There are several passages in the Hindu Scriptures, which have the same or similar meaning as Surah Ikhlas.

    1. Say: He is Allah, The One and Only.
    (Al Qur’an 112:1)

    It has a meaning which is very similar to:
    “Ekam Evadvitiyam”
    “He is only one without a second.”
    (Chandogya Upanishad 6:2:1)


    2. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute.

    He begetteth not, Nor is He begotten;
    (Al Qur’an 112:2-3)

    It has similar meaning as:
    “He who knows Me as the unborn, as the beginning-less, as the Supreme Lord of all the Worlds.”
    (Bhagvad Gita 10:3)
    and “Of (check – or For Him?) Him there is neither parents nor Lord.”
    (Shwetashvatara Upanishad 6:9)

    3. And there is none Like unto Him.
    (Al Qur’an 112:4)

    A similar message is given in Shwetashvatara Upanishad & Yajurveda:
    “Na Tasya pratima asti”
    “There is no likeness of Him.”
    (Shwetashvatara Upanishad 4:19 & Yajurveda 32:3)

    Remember, the Brahma Sutra of Hindu Vedanta is:
    ‘Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na naste kinchan”
    “Bhagwan ek hi hai dusara nahi hai, nahi hai, nahi hai, zara bhi nahi hai”.
    “There is only one God, not the second, not at all, not at all, not in the least bit”.
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